سيڪشن: شخصيات

ڪتاب: مير علي شير قانع ٺٽوي



Dr. H. I. Sadarangani




Mir Ali Shir “Qani” (1140- 1203 A. H/ 1727-8- 1789 A.D.) walad Izzatullah traces his descent to the Shukrillahi Sayyids of Thatta, who Settled there in the remote past (about the year 927 A. H./ 1521 A.D.). He received his early education at the feet of two distinguished Scholars of Thatta viz., ‘Allama Mu inud- Din and Makhdum Rehmatullah and learnt Persian from Akhund ‘Ab-ul-Hasan “Bitakalluf”. He was also a Pupil of Muhammad Sadiq and Ni’matullah, the learned sons of’ Abdul- Jalil.

Having natural gift for composition, he began writing at the early age of twelve, with his name as his nom de plume, and soon Completed a Diwan consisting of about 8,000 Verses which however, under force of certain circumstances, he threw into water. For almost two years that followed, he made no use of his talent till, in the year 1155 A.H. (1742 A.D.), he came in contact with the famous poet Hyderud- Din Abu Turab “Kamil” as a result of which he started composing again. This time he assumed the title of “Mazhari” (whose value according to the Abjad system happened to coincide with the year of the poet`s inspiration, viz., 1155) which, at a later date, he changed into “Qani”.

He was a versatile and Voluminous writer and a court- poet of Miyans Nur Muhammad and Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. He is the author of several books; his poetical works alone contain over 30,000 couplets. Here is a list of his works:

1.           Maqalatush- Shu` ara

2.           Tuhfat` ul- kiram

3.           Qissa-i- kamrup (about 3,000 distichs written on the measures of مفتعلن مفتعلن فاعلن (

4.            Mathnawi-i- Qada-wa- qadar (c. in 1167 A. H.in

          ہزج مسدس محذوف)

5.           Diwan-I Qani’ of about 9,000 distichs (C. 1171 A.H.)

6.           Ash’ ar-i- Mutafarriqa (about 1,000 distichs)

7.           Zinat’ ul- Akhlaq (Poetry)

8.           Nuskha-i- Ghawthiya (Poetry)

9.           Makli Nama (Poetry)

10.      Khatmus- Suluk (Mathnawi)

11.      Zayn’ ul- Afkar (Poetry)

12.       Zubdat’ ul- Manaqib

13.      Mukhtar Nama- nearly 7,000 distichs (originally composed in 1193 A.H. in (متقارب مثمن مقصور

14.      Tadhhibu’t- Taba’i

15.      Hadiqat’ ul- Awlia

16.       Mi’ yar-i- Salikan-i- Tariqat

17.      Siyahat Nama

18.      Shajara- I Mashaikh (Poetry)

19.      Chehar Manzila (Poetry)- nearly 1,000 couplets in

                                                    ھزج مسدس محذوف

20.      Kan-i- Jawahir (Mathnawi)

21.      Qassab Nama

22.      Tazwij Nama-i- Husn- wa- Ishq (Composed in 1180 A. H.)

23.      Bustan-i- Bahar (Prose- in Praise of Makli Hill)

24.      I’ lan-i- Gham dar Dhikr-i- Karbala

25.      Tarikh-I’ Abbasiya )Poetry and Prose- incomplete)

26.      Saqi Nama (Composed in (متقارب مثمن مخذوف  

27.      Raudat’ ul- Ambiya (Poetry)

28.      Kirishma- i- Qudrat-i- Haq (Mathnawi c. 1165 A. H. in متقارب مثمن مخذوف  )

29.      Nau Ain-i- Khayalat (C. 1196 A.H.)

30.      Shajara- i- Ahl-i- Bayt-i- At’ har.

 Of these the first two are comparatively more important, for without these the study of Sindh, specially its poets, , would remain incomplete. The Maqalatush- Shu` ara (C. about 1173 A.H. 1759 A.D) is an anthology of Persian Poets, Written in the alphabetical order of their nom de plumes, and Contains Short notices of about Seven hundred Poets, both natives and outsiders who visited Sindh. The Tuhfat’ ul- Kiram (C. 1181, A. H./ 1767 A.D.) is a book of Valuable historical information, which is divided into three parts- the last dealing exclusively with Sindh, its rulers, saints and Scholars, from ancient times down to the reign of the Kalhoras.(1)

“Qani’” was a Past- master in the art of composing Chrono-grams and enjoyed as great a reputation as Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Gilani. He wrote the the Subjoined(1) verses on the birth of Nasirud- Din (1168 A. H.), son of Najmud- Din Qadri of Thatta:

بعلم مسلک

فصیح اجسم

فقیہ وافی

جلیل احری

بعقل کمل

کریم اطیب

جلیل و زاھر

یمین عقبی

ولیء ماھر

مدقق امجد

بحار اعطا

مدار اولی

موفق اللہ

سراجی ابھی

مرام اھدا

محقق اجلی

The Worth of these lines could be realized when judged according to the poet`s following observation:

کہ درشکلِ مربع چون نویسند

ازو تاریخ بسیار آشکارا ست

بدینسان کز میانِ شانزدہ جزو

یگان ھر چار جزوش مطلب آراست

ولیکن طرفہ این کہ وزن و معنی

نمییابد خلل در ھر صفِ راست

He was a great artist and demonstrated considerable ingenuity in using many literary artifices. The Following verses, written on the model of Faydi’s

ای خم ابروی تو تیغِ جفا

حلقہء گیسوی تو دام بلا

Admit of four metres:(2)

ای خم ابروی تو قبلہ نما

گیسوی ھندوی تو مشک خطا

از لبِ عیسی تو مردہ حیات

طلعت نیکوی تو بدر سما

شد قد دلجوی تو نخل مراد

پرتو مھروی تو نور خدا

The author claims that the following hemistich can be scanned in ten different ways by introducing suitable variations in the order of the words occurring therein:

بر در تو دولت نو آمدہ

The above hemistich, according to the numerical value of  its letters signifies the year 1171 A.H. when Ghulam Shah Kalhoro ascended the throne.

Some of his odes reveal a peculiar type of literary artifice hardly traceable in the works of the poets of the Persian language. In the following couplet, the last letter of every word in each hemistich forms successively the first letter of the world following it:

آفتاب زم عنی وسف رخ صال

حاکم لک رامت اجدار  وزگار(1)

He has written many Poems on the lines of “Wahid,” :Naziri”, “Ghalib” and “Khusraw”. The influence of “Saib”, traceable in the works of some Persian and Indian poets, is also discernible in his poems:

میانِ "قانع" و مرزای "صائب" اردو ریست

نہ بستہ است کسی شاہراہ دلھا را

The Following is his tribute to Hyderud- Din “Kamil” (his teacher) and Muhsin (one of the most distinguishes poets of his age):

در زمین تتہ اندر زمرہء اہل قبول

ھمچو پیرِ "کاملم" صاحب ھدائی برنخاست

گرچہ "قانع" کم نمیباشد ز ہمعصرانِ خویش

ہمچو "محسن" شاعری حرف آشنائی برنخاست

In the following verse, he shows how greed darkend the path of love, and quotes the instance of Lila who lost Chanesar because of her infatuation for a costly necklace:-


طمع چو جلوہ کند چشم عقل کورشود

زعقد باختہ لیلا ازان چنیسر خویش

Love of one’s native place is a common trait. In the poet’s estmation, however, the native place. Is devoid of charm for the person who does not enjoy the esteem of its inhabitants:

ایام خزان باغ و چمن راچہ کند کس

جز آبروی خویش وطن راچہ کند کس!

Like frances Ann Kemble who said, “A sacred burden is this life ye bear; look on it; lift it; bear it solemnly; fail not for sorrow; falter not for sin; but onward, upward, till the goal ye win”,- the poet says that life is a struggle and its ups and downs are unavoidable in the scheme of human evolution:

بہ عسر و یسر چرا رنجہ میشود سالک

گریز نیست میانِ رہ از نشیب و فراز

برین قبای دو روزہ چہ قد کشی "قانع"

چو دوختند گریبان تو بصورت ِ کاز

From the very beginning of creation, suffering has been the heritage of man; he is cautioned to bear it patiently, for then alone can he be spiritually free:

غم بہ تبعیت آدم ہمہ کس را ست نصیب

ناخلف ھست کہ از راہ پدر میگذرد

چون شمع سری گریہ و سوز آوردیم

چون لالہ دلی داغ فروز آوردیم

القصد درین رباطِ کھنہ "قانع"

روزی بشب و شبی بروز آوردیم

Love is a great harmonizer and leveler. God is the giver of life. The ether of the souls holds us together by love, and thus prevents us from falling and sinking into chaos. Uliimately, every individual is destined to reach his destination of heavenly bliss through the realm of love, which gradually takes him on from the picturesque universe of phenomena to the blissful haven of beatitude- the primary seat of “haqiat” (attainment with the Essential Truth). Here is our poet’s brief delineation of “majaz” and haqiat” in his composition entitled Mahabbat Nama:

سزاوار ثنایست آن خداوند

کہ دلھا را بدلھا داد پیوند

محبت را پدید آورد از خویش

کزان دلھای عشاقش بود ریش

بہ مجنون در رخ لیلی نمودہ

اگرچہ خویشتن مقصود بودہ

نبودہ غیر مجنون کامِ   لیلی

چہ شد گر بود او بدنامِ لیلی

میان وامق و عذرا دوئی چیست

کہ غیر از عشق درمابینِ شان نیست

محبت در تن چون کرد ماوا

دوئی شد از میان، گشتند تنھا

Jesus, the blessed, has said, “Man liveth not by  bread alone”; and the lives of holymen show that nothing so fills the human heart as a drop from the fountain of Divine bliss, which descends on it from the sublime realm of the spirit through the chinks of meditation. He who is self- centred enjoys spiritual nourishment; he never hankers after food and drink. Says “Qani’”:

بتی را کہ باید پرستش ز دل

نباشد دمی بستہُ آب و گل

There is ebb and flow in life’s stream, but none in the love of the Almighty, which is ever full, and all- pervading. As Clement Scoott has said:

“Love rules the court, the camo, the grove,

And men below and saints above,

For love is heaven, and heaven is love.”

In the following verses, “Qani’” has drawn a fine and impressive word- picture of love by reference to the innate characteristics of some flowers, birds and musical scales:

ز آثارِ بدیعِ عشق از خاک

گل آید جامہ خونین سینہ صد چاک

اگر در باغ بینی در تہ راغ

بود لالہ بدل چاک و جگر داغ

بنرگس چشمِ خوابی کردہ جادو

کہ مدھوشست و دلخستہ لب جو

اگر  دارد گل زنبق سفیدی

بہ  یمنِ عشق میدارد سعیدی

ازان رو دہ زبان اندوخت سوسن

کہ رمزِ عاشق گوید بگلشن

سروری نیست بر سوری بجز نام

کہ اندر عاشقی زد بیشتر گام

بھر رنگی و ھر بوئی کہ بینی

گلی از گلبنِ مقصود چینی

سفید و زرد و سرخ عباس از چیست

چو اندر عاشقی دارد نکو زیست

چرا  ھموارہ باشد بید لرزان

برای چیست زینسان عشق پیچان

پریشانیء  سنبل بی تملق

بود  در باغ ز آثارِ تعشق

چنار از پنجہء پر زور اخلاص

ہمیدارد تہ سر شور اخلاص

چو بردہ دردِ سر سر عشق اول

گھی زرد ست و گاھی سرخ صندل

تذرو و فاختہ کوکو زنان چہ

بطوفِ باغ از ھر سو  دوان چہ

نیوشی گر زبانِ خندہء گل

نباشد جز بحرفِ عشق بلبل

ز شاخِ ارغوان گل کرد این حرف

کہ ھر چیزی بود از عشق پر ظرف

گلِ رعنا اگر دارد دو رنگی

ز عشقش حاصل آمد شوخ و شنگی

چنان در ھدھد این آتش بر افروخت

کہ دودش صورتِ تاجی بسر دوخت


مغنی تا براہِ عشق زد چنگ

بریزد از رخِ ھر تار "سارنگ"

شود امروز "تودی" نزد عاقل

شود گر از مقامِ عشق غافل

دلی "کان رہ" نہ زد بر جانبِ عشق

اگر ھم پاک باشد ہست در فسق

چو "مارو" نہ براہ عشق یکبار

کہ بر آسان و تیرہ باشدت بار

بہ "کلی آن" او شو باش ایمن

ز سر چنگی زنان ای صاحبِ فن

رباب "آسا" دو گوشِ خویش کن باز

کہ مطلوبت دھد ھر گوشہ آواز

Different manifestations are emanation of the one supreme irrespective of colour, creed and clime:

یک جلوہ زبیرنگیء او رنگ گرفتہ

لیلی بعرب گشتہ و در ہند دمن شد

از لعلِ شکر ریزِ او بردند مذاقی

سیبی بصفا ھان شد و انبی بہ دکن شد

قانع در کثرت چو زدہ وحدتِ ذاتش

در بصرہ حسن شدبہ یمن ویس قرن شد

Penance is the seed of genuine prayer, and the human heart is the Almighty’s receptacle. On this point, the poet has expressed himself in the following manner:

"قانع" بود عبادتِ شان در جزا قبول

از آبِ انفعال گر اینجا وضو کنند


چویار درھمہ احوال ساکنِ دل ماست

یقین شناس کہ تعمیر کعبہ از گل ماست


از کلیسا تا بکعبہ سر بسر گردیدہ ام

خانہ ای چون خانہء دل از خدا معمور نیست

In the following lines, “Qani’” has woven an instructive pun upon the word Gur signifying (a) Onager and (b) grave:

گور را بھرام اگرچہ صید میکردی مدام

می ندانست آن کہ صیادش بغیر از گورنیست

Crates threw his gold into the sea, saying: “I will destroy thee, lest thou destroy me.” If men do not put the love of the world to death, the love of the world will put them to death. The poet likens the highly alluring world to the tempting whore whom it is very difficult to satisfy, and who by her lascivious ways brings about the premature decay of her lovers and sends them to an early grave. Says he:

آنقدر گیرد بہ امساکش کہ از مردی رود

ھر کہ را با قحبہء دنیا ست حاصل ازدواج

A sense of kinship with the divine Essence is the sheet- anchor for the way- farers of life when they are faced with the deluding snares of Satan:

بسی گم گشتگان را  ھا دیء راہِ  ھدا گردد

جرس سان ھر کہ اورا ذکر قلبی دائما باشد

Sa’ di’s dictum

خوردن برای زیستن و ذکر کردنست

تو معتقد کہ زیستن از بھرِ خوردنست!

has a parallel in the poet’s:

آمد شدِ نفس پی ذکر ست و نی ھوا

ز ین تارو پود حیف کہ افسارِ خر شود

Vanity is a viper that many an ignorant fool nourishes in his bosom, and ultimately it proves to be the bane of his life:

آفت اندر دھر بر مردم ہمین نامست و بس

گرد خود گردیدنیھا حلقہء دامست و بس

The following few lines on Kashmir are from his mathnawi Qada-wa-qadar:

خور اندر سبزہ زارش شپرہ وار

نیارست آنکہ بیند روی انوار

گر آید بالمثل مہ از زمینش

کند گلچین غلط با  یاسمینش

ببوی بوی شببویش زھر باد

گلِ خورشید گیرد غنچگی یاد

[Dr. H.I. Sadarangani “Persian poets of Sind” Sindhi Adabi Board Karachi, 1956]



(1) See Tuhfat’ ul- Kiraam, Vol. Ill,p. 260. The Present writer wonders how Sorley (Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit, p. 16) and K.B. Khudadad Khan (Lubb-i- Tarikh-i- Sindh, p. 50) came to the conclusion that the  Tuhfat`ul- Kiram was written in 1187 A. H. / 1773 A.D Strange enough, Aitken (Gazetteer of the province of sind, Vol. A,p. 483) goes a step further and remarks, “it was completed not earlier than 1774 A.D.”

(1) This and the rest of the verses of “Qani” are taken from his Maqala- tush Shu’ara.

(2)  خفیف مخبون محذوف، (مفتعلن مفتعلن فاعلن) رجز مسدس مطوی (فاعلاتن فاعلاتن فاعلن) رمل مسدس محذوف، (فاعلاتن مفاعلن فعلن) and  رمل مسدس مخبون محذوف (فاعلاتن فعلن)

(1)  Bayad ]آفتابِ بزم معنی یوسفِ فرخ خصال                           حاکم ملکِ کرامت تاجدار روزگار[

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