سيڪشن؛  شخصيات

ڪتاب:ڊاڪٽر بلوچ: هڪ مثالي عالم


صفحو :23

"The study of history never existed in the true sense in the British time", he said. "Because they were propagating certain ideas. These divided Hindus and Muslims. They would refer to eye witnesses as "native historians", and imply that they wrote unscientifically and subjectively to please local rulers. They denigrated Akbar and Aurangzeb and chose not to compliment the Mughals. It was the Muslims who coined the word Hindu and Hindustan. They created India. True the Muslims broke idols because they believed in the one God, but they integrated Hindus into the system. They even married Hindu wives. The Muslims studied Sanskrit, the Hindus studied Islam and Islamic languages.

"This was destroyed by the colonial historians. The Muslim contribution to the subcontinent was downgraded. This tradition has continued in India today, where Indo-Muslim history is being studied and turned topsy Turvy. No one in Pakistan is doing anything. That is why Pakistanis are demoralised. They don't know anything about themselves."

"The study of history", he continued" gives a sense of identity and culture to nation. This has been entirely neglected in Pakistan. The problem is that the source books are in Persian and Arabic so students have to rely on secondary sources written by British or Hindu historians. I am the only person who has done some work on the early Muslim period. I have come to the conclusion that there was no written history in India until the Muslims came and published the "Chachnama"

One of Pakistan's foremost authorities of Sindh, Dr. Baloch has edited the "Chachnama" with introduction in English. He took advantage of a 13 month period of unemployment to wander across the interior collecting and compiling Sindh folklore which has become a milestone in Sindhi Studies.

A lively and entertaining conversationalist, Dr. Baloch was still in Aligarh, when Pir Elahi Bakhsh persuaded him to come and teach at Karachi's new Islamia College. Shortly afterwards, Dr. Baloch won a competitive government scholarship to Columbia University for higher studies in education. He did his Masters and his Doctorate there and was selected for a UN internship programme. While he was in New York, Pakistan came into being. On his return, Dr. Baloch was selected by the Public Services Commission.

Here he fell foul of provincial wrangling in the Ministry of Education and after a time in the wilderness, joined External Publicity in the ministry of Information. He has many lively anecdotes to tell about the aggressive broadcasts that he developed to counter Indian and Afghan propaganda. He joined the faculty of Sindh University when the campus moved from Karachi to Hyderabad in the 1950's. He worked here for 25 years. He still lives in Hyderabad.

"In Pakistan", he said "we say funds are not available for education but almost 80% could be corrected without funds. It's a question of management. We must correct the apparatus of education. We must see that teaching is done."

"Students attend, exams are taken, and all other functions are performed as they should be. Appoint a principal and hold him/her responsible. At present no one cares because there is no reward and no accountability. Discipline has been thrown to the winds."

"The British were not interested in educating the masses and we have followed that legacy. They set up universities and colleges to recruit colonial administrators and we still think those are more important than primary education. The fact is that a normal child, with six years of planned primary education, can be better prepared to participate in nation building activities, than the distracted youth, who graduates through a disorganized effort of years of misdirection."


(Daily Dawn, Karachi)

Professor Nazir Ahmed


I first read about Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch (Dr. N. A. Baloch) in a letter of Faiz Ahmed Faiz written on 8 June 1953 to Mrs. Faiz from Hyderabad Jail, and included in the collection ’صليبين ميرﻵ دريچـﻶ مين‘ published from Karachi in 1971. Faiz describes him as a pleasant visitor, a professor in the local University who brought for him translations of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Sindh's great mystic poet. He recalls with affection the kind words of Dr. Baloch and the useful discussion with him on poetry and educational, matters. A few years later when I was at the Ministry of Education, Islamabad and we were preparing lists of scholars from within the country and from abroad who could speak or write on Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in connection with his centenary celebrations, Dr. Baloch's name came up and he complied a booklet on quotes from the Quaid-i-Azim in Urdu for students.

( طُلبه اور تعليم: قائداعظم نـﻶ کيا سوچا اور کيا کها‘ مؤلف: اور مرتب: ڊاکڻر نبي بخش بلوچ، اسلام آباد 1976ع، ص: 74)

It continues to be a useful reference book despite the fact that Dr. S.M. Zaman has more recently published a comprehensive reference book on the subject. In 1975 in connection with Sindh Through Centuries Seminar, I heard Dr. Baloch speak on folklore and music with authority and aplomb, and it left on my mind an indelible impression of his multifaceted personality,- as a scholar with multi-disciplinary approach, a scholar in the traditional mould having to do something or the other with the entire corpus of knowledge. Two of the major article in the introductory brochure brought out on the occasion by Pyar ali allana, Minister for Education and Cultural Affairs, Government of Sindh, and Chairman, Central Committee, Sindh Through Centuries Seminar, were by Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch, Vice Chancellor, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, namely (1) 'Sindh, a Historical Perspective' and (2) 'Sindhi Folk Arts and Crafts'

I came in contact with him in 1976 when after having been Vice-chancellor, University of Sindh, Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch was posted as O.S.D (Secretary) in the Ministry of Education, Islamabad. The work assigned to him for supervision included programmes of century celebrations of the founding fathers of Pakistan,  Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Allama Mohammad Iqbal, the programmes in the preparation of which I had played a pivotal role as secretary to the two Executive Committees concerned but I had in the middle of 1976 been posted abroad as Education Attache at the Pakistan Embassy London. My predecessor there, Dr. S.M. Zamann (presently, Chairman, Council of Islamic Ideology) had returned home. I was fully prepared to leave as Mumtaz Daultana, ambassador of Pakistan in the United Kingdom had urged that the new Education Attache' should join immediately now to his assignment. Dr. Baloch probably felt that in my absence he might experience difficulties in implementing the centenary programmes. He therefore in a meeting convened by the Education Minister, Mr. Abdul Hafeez Pirzado brought up the subject and the Minister remarked that if the officer was so indispensable for the job, he should be stopped from proceeding abroad. A friend of mine who met me in Aabpara in the afternoon informed me about the development and sympathized with me. However, in an interview the following morning, the Education Minister Okayed my going abroad and decided to host a reception bidding me farewell.

Thus my contact with Dr. Baloch started on a discordant note which was, without loss of time, smoothed away for us, me as a junior and him as a senior, to resume a friendly relationship which continues to flourish.

I returned from England in March 1981 and was posted in the Cabinet Division where circumstances again put me in touch with him but before I reminisce about those times, a word about activities of Dr. Baloch in the interval.

Dr. Baloch consolidated his position and emerged as a figure of considerable consequence beginning from 1977. Late Mr. A.K. Brohi's association with the government of General Zia-ul-Haq as Minister turned out to be a helpful factor for him. Among other things Mr. Brohi headed the National Hijra Committee setup in April 1978 to mark the occasion of commencement of the 15th century of Hijra in a befitting manner in line with decisions taken in the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Organization of Islamic Countries. One of the proposals of the committee led to the establishment of the Islamic University, Islamabad, Dr. Baloch was appointed the first Vice-chancellor of this University. He also came to head the Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, a research organization which had earlier been established as Commission for Historical and Cultural Research with Professor K.K. Aziz the well known historian as its chairman. Dr. Baloch as director of the institute continued with its programme of publication and research but reoriented it to suit new requirements and his own experience as a scholar. Recalled here are two books of the period:

1) Dr. N.A. Baloch, ed, Pakistan: A comprehensive Bibliography of Books and Government Publications with Annotations 1947-80, Islamabad,  Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, 1981, pp 515,

2) Dr. N.A. Baloch. Ed, Fatahnamah-i-Sind. Islamabad, Institute of Islamic History Culture and Civilization, 1982, pp A-English 158. B-Persian 279

The comprehensive bibliography is the joint compilation of the research scholars of the Institute who worked under the direction of Dr. Baloch. It is based on different bibliographical sources, and, besides English, lists books in Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashto, It also draws on government publications, documents and reports. Primarily relating to the post Independence Period (1947-80), the bibliography contains 8,385 entries which cover a wide range of subjects such as: (1) Reference Works. (2) Land and the people. (3) History.(4) Geography (5) Politics (6) Government (7) Economics (8) Foreign Affairs (9) Defence (10) Culture and Civilization (11) Art Architecture and Archaeology (12) Language and Literature (13) Education (14) Religion and Philosophy (15) Sciences and Technology (16) Health and Medicine (17) Migration and (18) Mass Media and Information.

In its general outline, the bibliography brings to one's mind the series titled Books From Pakistan published by the Pakistan Book Council under the supervision of late Ibne Insha.

Fatahnamah-i-Sindh is a scholarly edition of a manuscript, work of Dr. N.A. Baloch in its entirety. He visualized for implementation by the Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization a 25- Volume Project dedicated to the original sources of the Indo-Muslim History, and issued Fatahnamah-i-Sindh as volume- I Part-I of the project. It has two sections, A- English (notes and commentary) and B- Persian (text).

 The manuscript contains the original record of the Arab conquest of Sindh by Mohammad b. Qasim (712-15-A.D). Besides detailed reports of the campaign in general and eyewitness accounts of different battles in particular, Fatahnamah also contains information on ethnological dissemination and Buddhism in Sindh, and on relations between the kingdom of Sindh and other contemporary kingdom.

An eminent literary scholar named Ali b. Hamid b. Abu Bakr Kufi found an Arabic work on the early history of the Arab conquest of Sindh in the form of a manuscript preserved by an illustrious family of Aror and Bakhar in Sindh. For wider dissemination of its contents Ali Kufi translated the Arabic manuscript into Persian in 1216. A.D.

By drawing on Arabic sources of the 8th and 9th centuries A.D., Dr. N.A. Baloch has illuminated the scholarly background of the manuscript translated by Ali Kufi. He has also assessed the translation for its faithfulness (or otherwise) to the original. In doing so his objective has been to establish the correct Persian text of Fatahnamah-i-Sindh, important as it is as the first truly historical work about historical events which took place during a known historical period, ever compiled in the South Asian Subcontinent.

In his research on Fatahnamah, Dr. Baloch has followed incremental approach, building the quantum of research gradually over a long period of time as the sources became available, and by taking into account English translation of the work in modern times. He has commented on and acknowledged the value of late Dr. U.M. Daudpota's research who first edited the Persian text based on five manuscripts and published in 1939. Dr. Baloch started his journey from where Dr. Daudpota left it and sustained it from 1943 onwards till the present edition with a tenacity and farsightedness of a genuine research scholar looking up major repositories of manuscripts in the subcontinent and the U.K. for materials relevant to his purpose, reading those materials with an incisive intellect and using them objectively to establish what is historically authentic in Fathnamah and explaining what needs to be replaced in the text. The end result should be described as a major academic achievement. The work as published is Volume-I part of an unfulfilled dream, 25 volume projects on the original sources of Indo-Muslim History starting with the years 712 and ending in 1947 when Pakistan emerged as a sovereign state.

After Dr. Baloch's is tenure as the Vice chancellor of the Islamic University and as Director Institute of Islamic History, Culture ad Civilization came to an end, the question of further utilization of his services was examined in the mid eighties by the Establishment and Cabinet Division in the light of a directive issued by the late President General Zia-ul-Hq. As a consequence of this exercise, I was asked to draft and issue, after due process, a government resolution setting up National Hijra Council, raising its status from a committee to an autonomous body under the administrative control of the Cabinet Division located at 20 Masjid Road F 6-4, Islamabad. Late Mr. A.K. Brohi remained its chairman and Dr. N.A. Baloch became advisor to the Council. He continued his scholarly work with unabated devotion. Three publications of the National Hijra Council during this period stand out vividly in my recollection. Those are:

1. S-Amjad Ali, ed., the Muslim World Today, Islamabad, National Hijra Council, 1985, pp 627.

2. Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, Islam and Art, Islamabad, National Hijra Council, 1985, pp 236.

3. Dr. N.A Baloch, ed, Muslim Luminaries, Leaders of Religious, Intellectual and Political Revival in South Asia, Islamabad, National Hijra Council 1988, pp 402.

The Muslim World Today is profusely illustrated survey of forty six independent Muslim countries plus Palestine. A part of the book is devoted to the resurgence of Islam in Europe and America, The text was written and designed by S. Amjad Ali, Preface contributed by Dr. N.A. Baloch and foreword by late Mr. A.K. Brohi. It was printed by the Elite Publishers, Karachi in an extremely attractive manner.

The book contains information on various aspects of the countries concerned some of which has become outdated but the major theme of the book namely, release of the Muslim world from imperialist domination to an era of freedom is of enduring historical value.

Collection of the information that went into the making of the book required coordination of truly gigantic proportions, informed by vision and administrative efficiency. This was provided by Dr. N.A. Baloch with his characteristic sobriety in the publication of this unique book.

The Muslim World Today was launched with late Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo as the chief guest. He made a generous grant on this occasion to help the Hijra Council continue with its publications programme devoted to promoting consciousness of the historical role of Islam.

Islam and Art are authored by Dr. Lois Lamy al Faruqi, Professor of Religion and the Arts at the Temple University, Philadelphia, U.S.A. with a preface by Dr. N.A. Baloch. The book attempts to state the aesthetic principles of art and their uses with the principles of Islam in general, and to survey the artistic expression of Muslim sensibility in various forms and lands in the historical perspective. Calligraphy which is central to art in Islam has been discussed as arabesque with copious illustrations of contemporary scripts, and the various functions it has performed in the Islamic Culture. From calligraphy discussion moves to architecture. Common components in Islamic buildings such as enclosed courtyard, dome, aisled sanctuary, mihrab, etc, have been identified. Arabesque decoration and its motif vocabulary as used in architecture, ceramics, carpets, textiles, and metal work have been high lighted. The last chapter deals with music.

All in all, Islam and Art is a compact and concise volume sensitively conceived and aesthetically presented.

The Muslim Luminaries is the first volume in the 3 volume project prepared by Dr. N.A. Baloch and approved by late Mr. A.K. Brohi who died in September 1987, a few months before the first volume was issued. Late Mr. A.K. Brohi's essay on Allama I.I. Kazi (1888-1963) is included in the book. The contributors and luminaries are as follows.

1.     Dr. Burhan Ahmed Faruqi on.

        Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi  (1563-1624)

2.     Prof: G.N. Jalbani, on

        Shah Waliyullah (1704-1763)

3.     Prof: M.Y. Abbasi, on

        Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) and Syed Amir Ali (1849-1928)

4.     Dr. Afzal Iqbal, on

        Maulana Mohammed Ali (1879-1930)

5.     Justice Dr. Javed Iqbal, on

        Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

6.     Dr. M. Moizuddin, on

        Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi (1872-1944)

7.     Prof: Sharif al Mujahid, on

        Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

8.     Syed Shabir Hussain, on

        Inayat ullah Khan El-Mashriqi (1888-1963)

9.     A.K. Brohi, on

        I.I. Kazi (1888-1963)

10.   Qazi Hasan Moizuddin, on

        Syed Abul A'la Maududi (1903-1979)

As would appear from the outline given above, selection of thinkers and leaders is faultless and so is the choice of scholars to write their biographies. The luminaries came alive on the stage of history and among themselves crystallized a period of nearly four centuries in which life of Muslims went through many changes but shaped up around great ideals emanating from their faith in Islam.

The editor of the Muslim Luminaries (Dr. Baloch) has done a commendable job in getting quality material and producing a fascinating volume.

One of the projects on which late Mr. A.K. Brohi expressed his views in quite a few meetings of the Hijra Council was based on the proposed publication of a hundred works in English translation representing various aspects of Islamic culture and civilization down the ages. Dr. N. A Baloch took it up assiduously and prepared a conspectus of the project by listing works of scholarship which could mirror Islamic culture, and started consultation meetings with scholars in the Muslim world. Dr. Baloch implemented the project with rig our and published four volumes continuing further work on a dozen more. But the project could not be completed and it remained an unfulfilled dream of a fertile mind after Dr. Baloch departed from the Hijra Council.

My reminiscences of Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch in Islamabad have focused on his academic pursuits. Fact of the matter is that his dominant impression on my mind is that of an academician par excellence with profound interest in the Islamic world view in various fields and the evolution of Muslim Identity in the subcontinent.

He carries on the tradition of classical scholarship deeply rooted in Persian and Arabic with a touch of the spirit of the Aligarh movement. He has been rightly complimented for his encyclopedic knowledge of the Sindhi culture but he rises above this level to the status of a scholar who should figure prominently on the national sense in Pakistan and simultaneously find a respectable mention in the Muslim world as a whole.

In my official dealings with Dr. N.A. Baloch I was struck by his sagacity. A few examples would suffice here.

For some years he chaired the meetings of the scanning committee of the National Documentation Centre. I was the secretary of the committee. Our job was to finalize in consultation with historians and archivists selections of British Period historical materials for acquisition from the India Office Library and Record, London. Dr. Baloch would listen to everyone with enormous patience without wearing his own scholarship on his sleeve and imposing it on others. Practical consideration guided his course of action.

For sometimes we were both concerned in different capabilities, with our annual celebration of Independence Day. Each year I would convene a meeting at the Cabinet Division for one particular item, the publication programme for the day. The meeting was attended by representatives of all ministries and divisions concerned and Dr. Baloch chaired the meetings from the very beginning he was clear in his mind that the set of publications to be prepared each year for distribution among school children should be memorial in character, in memory of the event being celebrated. It should not have anything to do with the government of the day. The programme was implemented along these lines and everybody endorsed this approach.

When late Mohammad Khan Junejo became the Prime Minister and the main celebrations on 14th August had to move out of the Presidency, a venue was to be selected to the purpose, Final choice of venue in front of the Parliament house was proposed by Dr. N. A. Baloch and adopted officially without much discussion.

Aziz Malik

Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch:

Scholar and Educationist.

I have known Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch for the last 50 years but have always maintained a respectful distance. So for me writing about him proved to be a Herculean task. The problem was how to approach the elusive professor, as he has always shunned publicity. But like all great men he is the embodiment of humility. I could not believe my luck when Dr. Baloch himself called me to comment on a report I had filed and asked me to join him over a cup of tea.

Those who know Dr. Baloch. 'The renaissance man of Sindh', also know hour busy he is. He reads, sleeps, drinks, eats and writes books. Dr. Hamida Khuhro describes Dr. Baloch as "a man with the curiosity of an explorer and the application of a scholar. He is a born researcher and an indefatigable worker devoted to the cause of learning and knowledge. There is no corner of Sindh's folk literature, culture, history, geography and anthropology that has not been researched by him. It would not be an exaggeration to call him an encyclopedia of Sindh."

Born in small village of Sanghar district, Dr. Baloch has had a brilliant academic career. He was initially schooled at a local school and then went on to do his matriculation from High School Naushahro Feroze. Then came graduation with honours from Bahauddin College, Junagadh, and a Masters Degree from the Aligarh Muslim University. Yet another feather in his cap was his degree in Law.

Based on his academic performance, he was selected by the Birtish Government of India for higher studies aboard with specialization in Education. Selection in those days was made purely on merit: out of 600 candidates only about a dozen candidates were selected. Dr. Baloch being one of them. He proved his wroth by obtaining Masters and Doctorate degrees from Columbia University, New York. Since then Education has remained his passion and first love. Later he was also selected for a ten-week information techniques course by the U.N.

The real educationist in Dr. Baloch emerged on the scene, when he was appointed Press Attache in the Middle East. He called on the great Allama I.I. Kazi, the Vice Chancellor of the Sindh University, when it was being shifted to Hyderabad. The Allama asked Dr. Baloch to join university and when he asked about the tenure, Dr. Baloch weans told, "Till you retire". Without a moment's hesitation, Dr. Baloch tendered his resignation from the Ministry of Interior, Information and Broad casting Division, where he was serving, and joined the university to become the founder of the Department of Education in Sindh University, which till than did not exist in any other university of the country.

He then helped the other universities establish their Education Departments. His love for education is so profound that when he became the Vice Chancellor of Sindh University in the early 70's, he did not give up teaching, under his leadership; this department later became a full fledged Institute of Education and Research. It will be not exaggeration to say that Dr. Baloch is a pioneer in the field of higher professional education of teachers in Pakistan.

Dr. Baloch served as a Vice Chancellor of Sindh University from December 1973 to January 1976, when his services were acquired by the federal government. In Islamabad he held important position as secretary (O.S.D) Ministry of Education and Ministry of Culture: Chairman, National Institute of Historical Research: Member of Pay Commission: Member of Federal Review Board: Advisor to the National Hijra Council: but perhaps his singular distinction is that he was the first Vice Chancellor of the Islamic University (now International Islamic University).

As the first chairman of Sindhi Language Authority, Dr. Baloch president over and participated in a number of national and international seminars and conferences. A recognized scholar of international repute, he is the author of a large number of research papers, and the author and editor of more than 80 books in five different languages English, Sindhi, Urdu, Persian and Arabic.

He developed and directed the monumental "Great Books Project" of the Hijra Council, Islamabad aimed at translating and editing into English one hundred great books of Islamic civilization. Earlier, he had directed another important project of the Sindhi Adabi Board, the 'Folklore Project'. He has published forty volumes on Sindhi folklore, ten volume of the poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and five volumes of dictionary of Sindhi, which according to Dr. Hamida Khuhro "must be regarded as a seminal work on the Sindhi language".

Dr. Baloch has received Tamgha-e-Pakistan and Pride of Performance Awards, and the "Twentieth Century Scholar Award" from "Kalhora Seminar" organizing committee held in Karachi in 1996. At present he is Professor Emeritus (Education) University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Only a scholar can assess the man who is a peerless educationist, historian, linguist, researcher and a literary giant.

(Daily "DAWN" Karachi)

Dr. Habibulla Siddiqul

Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch:

An Insight into a Living Legend of Sindh

”تو جو ڏيئو ڀانئيو، سا سورج سهائي،

انڌن اونداهي، جي رات وهامي ڏينهن ٿيو“

(شاهه لطيف، رامڪلي)

What you thought was a lamp,

Was indeed the sun shine,

It is dark for the blind,

Though the day has dawned.

A chilly morning of January 1957, a heavy down pour and gushing northern wind, we were waiting for Dr. Baloch to come and preside the debate scheduled for the day. We thought and wished that a word would come from him that the debate is postponed: but at the exact time he appeared plodding his way through the rain. He gave us a quick smile and said, "It's a wonderful morning! Let us get to work."

A cast steel disciplinarian, who would never allow a letup in work, has himself passed 84 years working incessantly and indefatigually. One can peep into his profile.

The Profile

Dr. Nabi bakhsh Khan S/o Ali Muhammad Khan s/o Arz Muhammad Khan Baloch, his ancestors migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan and settled in Saghar area, during Kalhora rule- was born on 16th December, 1917 A.D. Father died after four months and the uncle Wali Mohammad Khan took over the guardianship of the orphan nephew. There was no primary school in village Jafar Khan Laghari where he was born, so when he became of school going age, he was admitted in a primary school at village Palio Khan Laghari at a distance. Four standards of primary education he passed successfully, after playing truant and being punished for his weakness in arithmetic. For secondary education, he got admitted in the historic Naushahro Feroz Madresah & High School in 1929. An indigent bright student, he passed seven standards in seven years and matriculated from Bombay University in 1936. Bahauddin College Jhungarh, run by the philanthropist Nawab, offered a venue and he went there for four years more and in 1941 got the degree of B.A (Hons) with first class third position in the Bombay University. Then he had to move out of Jhungarh due to his Khaksar activities, which the State did not aprove of. He went to Aligarh Muslim University and did his M.A, L.L.B there with first class first position in M.A, and first class ranking in L.L.B. When the Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah visited the University, he led the Khaksar contingent to present guard-of-honour. On return from Aligarh, he served as lecturer at the Sindh Muslim College Karachi in 1945-1946.

Due to his first class first position in M.A, he got scholarship from the British Government of India to prosecute further studies at the University of Columbia in New York City. He did M.Ed. and B.Ed. during 1946-1949, which were hot years of burning debate over the "two-nation-theory" in the sub-continent, discussed abroad with interest. An Indian scholar, Taraknath Das, was at the rostrum in New York outrightly condemning the two nation theory. Youthful Baloch, a student from the Columbia University took his turn during the question answer time and raised such finding points that the speaker Taraknath Das could not refute and walked out. "Khan Baloch" won the day and became a popular debater. He had already organized a Muslim Students Association in the Columbia University. As its secretary, now he participated in the debates in important cities of the United States and Canada. At the first independence-day-celebratation held in New York City in 1947, scholarly Baloch presided and presented a map of Pakistan to illestrate his presidential address. Then he went round the States and Canada to collect contributions in cash and kind for the rehabilitation of Muslim refugees uprorted from India.

Nabi Bakhsh Khan became Doctor of Education, from the Columbia University, in 1949. He had an offer for employment in the UNO, but he preferred to get back home and engage in its development. Back home in May 1949, he found that the promised job had already been filled and he had to go unemployed for at least a year. Undaunted by adverse circumstances, he drew his own action-plan. During the year 1949-50, he visited many places in Sindh its villages, hamlets and towns, organized kutchehris with the folk and educated himself about the culture and traditions of Sindh, and visited schools to address young students. He visited Dadu High School in 1950, when I was a student of IV Standard. His speech infused the spirit or organization amongst us. Soon we formed an English Debating Society and a Sindhi Bazm-i-Adab.

In 1950, Dr. Baloch got a job in the Pakistan Information Division, and then in the foreign service, but he left good jobs to become a teacher in the university. The University of Sindh had been established in Karachi on 3rd, April 1947, replacing the Bombay University as an examining authority for the colleges and high schools then existing in Sindh. After four years, the nascent University of Sindh got its god-father Allama I.I. Kazi as its second Vice-chancellor, who looked for talented young professors, who could help him turn the University of Sindh into a teaching University. Dr. N.A.Baloch was identified and picked up, along with a few more. A Department of Education was the first teaching institution which was made functional in September 1951 with Dr. N.A.Baloch as its founder Director. During the academic year 1952-53, the Department of Sindhi started working. It became the additional assiganment of Dr. Baloch. Allama Kazi loved, appreciated and trusted him and he was also getting popular with the students community all over Sindh. The Sindh University was shifted to Hyderabad on 4th May 1951, and housed in what is now called the Old Campus, since named Elsa Kazi Campus, and Dr. N. A. Baloch took his residence there and is living and working there continuously eversince.

Allama I.I.Kazi resigned from the Vice-chancellor's post on 25th May 1959, and passed away on 13th April 1969. Dr. N.A.Baloch continued to develop the Department of Education, raised it to the status of Institute of Education & Research and produced pristine research works on the history and culture of Sindh, since unprecedented. He was inspired by Allama I.I. Kazi and had turned a visionary for educational advancement of Sindh. He keeps the memory of his ideal alive by managing Allama I.I. Kazi Memorial Society, on behalf of which he has published a number of books on the teachings of the great sage of modern Sindh.

Dr. N.A. Baloch was made the Vice-chancellor of the University of Sindh in 1973 and remained as such up to 1976, when he was called to Islamabad. He was appointed as OSD (Jan 1976-Aug 1977) in the MOE, then posted as secretary Ministry of Culture, Archaelogy, Sports and Tourism (as a right man for the right job), where he worked from September 1977 to March 1979, and simultaneously during 1978-79 he remained a member of the Federal Review Board. on first July 1979, he joined the National Institute for Research in History and Culture, at first as Chairman. Within three months he institutionalized it as "National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research" and became its founder Director (1979-1982). In the meantime the International Islamic University was established in Islamabad in 1980 and he was chosen as the founder vice-chancellor. He laid its foundation and raised its organs for two year (1980-1982): When the 15th century celebrations were launched in 1983, he was taken up as Advisor of the Hijra council. He joined on 22nd November 1983, and worked for 7 years (1983-1990) on his 100 Great Islamic Books Project in right earnest. A number of useful books were translated and published with his scholarly editing and annotations.

The Sindhi Language Authority was established on 4th December 1990 and Dr. N.A. Baloch was called up to become its founder –Chairman. He laid the foundations of the Sindhi Language Authority and developed it till 1994. In the mean while he was assigned additional job of Minister for Education in the care-taker Government of Sindh Province. He returned to the University of Sindh as professor emeritus, managed the Allama I.I. Kazi Chair and ran Allama I.I. Kazi Memorial Society. He a founder of institutions is ever busy at work, gets ready for the office/field work every morning. He has proved that a true teacher never retires. He has been decorated by the Government of Pakistan with four awards so far. Tamgha-i-Pakistan, Sitara-i-Quaid-i-Azam, President's Award for Pride of Performance, and this year's Sitara-i-Imtiaz, (announced on 14th August 2001)

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